AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are both glutamate receptors and cation channels that are integral to plasticity and synaptic transmission at many postsynaptic membranes. One of the most widely and thoroughly investigated forms of plasticity in the nervous system is known as long-term potentiation, or LTP.

Figures: The slow Ca2+ oscillations in both putative-neurons and astrocytes were mainly due to Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store via the IP3 receptor. A–D, Typical time courses of the slow Ca2+ oscillations during the administration of 10 µM CNQX and 50 µM AP5 (CNQX + AP5), 1 µM TTX, 2 µM thapsigargin (Thapsi), and 100 µM 2-APB in putative-neurons and astrocytes. Horizontal bars under the time courses indicate the application period of the agents. Scale bar, 200 s, µR = 0.02. E, F, Transient rates of the slow Ca2+ oscillations during the administration of various pharmacological agents in putative-neurons (E) and astrocytes (F). The transient rates of the slow Ca2+ oscillations are normalized by the transient rates under control conditions. The number of cells recorded is shown above each bar graph. ****p<0.001; one-sample t-test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085351.g004.

There are two necessary components of LTP: presynaptic glutamate release and postsynaptic depolarization. Therefore, LTP can be induced experimentally in a paired electrophysiological recording when a presynaptic cell is stimulated to release glutamate on a postsynaptic cell that is depolarized.

NameCatalog #TypeSpeciesApplicationsSizePrice
(RS)-AMPA hydrobromide1074-1AgonistAllBSM1 mg
10 mg
10 mg
CNQX1049-10AgonistAllBSM10 mg
50 mg
Theanine3847-50ModulatorAllBSM50 mg$79