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Type: Mouse IgG
Applications: IHC
E=ELISA; FACS; FC=Flow Cytometry; FPLC=Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography; GF=Gravity Flow; HPLC=High Performance Liquid Chromatography; ICC=Immunocytochemistry; IF=Immunofluorescence; IHC=Immunohistochemistry; IP=Immunoprecipitation; NAC=Non-adherent Cell Assays; NB=Neutralization of Bioactivity; SE=Sandwich ELISA; TPE=Targeted Protein Expression; WB=Western blotting; ; AC=Adherent Cell Assays; FM=Fluorescent Micsroscopy; ; ; BSC-CM5= Biacore Sensor Chip CM5; BSM=Biosactive Small Molecule or Peptide; CDM=Cell Differentiation Media; ; ; ; ; ; Health and Fitness; ; ; DNA Extraction/Purification; ; In vivo Like Assays
Species Reactivity: H
B=Bovine; Ca=Cat; Ch=Chicken; D=Dog; EQ=Equine; GP=Guinea Pig; H=Human; M=Mouse; P=Porcine; Pr=Primate; R=Rat; Rb=Rabbit; Y=Yeast; Xe=Xenopus; Ze=Zebrafish; ; ; ; NA-Not Applicable; STP=Step-Tactin Proteins; All
Format: Supernatant - liquid
Immunogen: Prokaryotic recombinant fusion protein corresponding to the extracellular protein of APP between the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain and the beta amyloid region.

Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, exists in both familial and sporadic forms. Genetic studies have identified three genes; beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP),  Presenilin 1 and Presenilin 2 which, when mutated, can cause familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. APP and APP-like proteins are transmembrane glycoproteins with a similar modular domain structure.

APP-228 has been raised to the extracellular portion of APP between the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain and the beta amyloid region. This region shows the least homology with the APP-like proteins. APP-228 and does not cross-react with APP-like proteins.  APP reacts with large pyramidal cells as well as smaller neurons, astrocytes and microglia. APP 228 reacts with late-stage neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons, neuritic processes surrounding senile plaques and neuropil threads in gray matter of Alzheimer's disease brain. Unmasking in 1mM EDTA (pH8.0) in a pressure cooker may be required for up to 5 minutes in order for this APP-228 to work optimally.

Image: Human cortex, Alzheimer's disease: immunohistochemical staining using amyloid precursor protein-228. Note intense staining of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Paraffin section

APP228: Customer Publication


A-Beta proteolysis by TTR is KPI-sensitive.
A- A-Beta incubated with TTR (A-Beta+TTR) shows a weaker A-Beta monomer band as compared to A-Beta alone (A-Beta), indicative of proteolysis, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by western blot. Pre-incubation of TTR with pefabloc (A-Beta+(TTR+pefabloc)) and with an αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) inhibits TTR proteolytic activity, whereas the αAPP peptide without the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) facilitates proteolysis. B- % of inhibition of TTR proteolysis by quantification of band intensity in A. C- Ultrastructural analysis by TEM of preparations incubated for 15 hours, as described in Materials and Methods. TTR inhibited A-Beta aggregation as compared with A-Beta incubated alone (upper panels). Pre-incubation of TTR with αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) abrogated TTR ability to avoid A-Beta aggregation, whereas αAPP lacking the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) did not affected TTR activity (lower panels). Scale bar=500 nm. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(8): e2899. Published online 2008 August 6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002899.