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Pax-5 is a B cell specificactivator protein (BSAP). In the early stages of B cell developmemt, Pax-5 influences the expression of several B-cell-specific genes, such as CD19 and CD20. Pax-5 is expressed primarily inpro-, pre-, and mature B cells, but not inplasma cells. Interestingly, Pax-5 mRNA is transiently detected in the mesencephalon and spinal cord during embryogenesis. Expression then shifts to the fetal liver and correlates with the onset of B lymphopoiesis. This indicates that Pax-5 is important in B cell development, but may also have a role in proper neuronal development.
PAX5 is found in most cases of mature and precursor B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas/leukemias. Pax-5 is not detected in Multiple myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma cell lymphomas do express Pax5 except for those with terminal B cell differentiation. T cell neoplasms do not stain with anti-Pax5; however there is a strong association with CD20 expression.
Images: Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia: immunohistochemical staining for Pax-5. Note nuclear staining of B cells. Paraffin section.