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Cancer: Dendritic cells (DC) genetically modified ex vivo to overexpress CX3CR1/fractalkine would enhance the T cell-mediated cellular immune response with a consequent induction of anti-tumor immunity to suppress tumor growth. Recently,CX3CR1 /fractalkine was found to serve as a co-receptor for HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope fusion and virus infection, which can be inhibited by fractokine.
Fractalkine has also been found to play a role in nociceptive pain might act tonically as an anti-inflammatory chemokine in cerebral tissue through its ability to control and suppress certain aspects of microglial activation. These data may have relevance to degenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis, in which cerebral inflammatory processes may be activated.