TRAIL binds at least five different receptors: TRAIL R1 (DR4), R2 (DR5), R3 (DcR1), R4 (DcR2), and osteoprotegerin (OPG). TRAIL receptors all exhibit cysteine-rich repeats characteristic of the TNF receptor superfamily. TRAIL R1 and R2 are type 1 transmembrane proteins with intracellular death domains (DD) and, subsequently, have the ability to mediate TRAIL-induced apoptosis.. TRAIL R3 is membrane-associated via GPI linkage.
This receptor can be activated by tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TNFSF10/TRAIL/APO2L), and transduces apoptosis signal. Studies with FADD deficient mice suggested that FADD, a death domain containing adaptor protein, is required for the apoptosis mediated by this protein.
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