Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified next to MD2 and CD14 as a receptor that is central to the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram negative bacteria. TLR4 contributes to the initiation of CNS neuroimmune activation after nerve transection. TLR4 is part of an early, specific, innate CNS/microglial response and maybe relevant in the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes. TLR4 is weakly expressed by resting cells, but is upregulated following stimulation with LPS.
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