Alpha synuclein is a member of the synuclein family, the other two proteins being beta and gamma synuclein. Alpha synuclein was originally isolated as a major synaptic vesicle associated protein from the electric organ of the fish Torpedo (1). Direct homologues of alpha-synuclein are found in all vertebrates. Later work connected alpha-synuclein with human brain pathology, when a protein originally identified as a component of NAC, the "Non-Amyloid beta Component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid" proved to be a peptide derived from alpha-synuclein (2).
The alpha-synuclein protein is therefore sometimes known as NAC precursor or NACP. Further work showed that alpha-synuclein is a major component of the Lewy bodies of Parkinson's disease and point mutations of alpha-synuclein proved to be causative of some forms of familial Parkinson's disease (3, 4, 5). However, despite being discovered as as component of amyloid preparations, alpha-synuclein is apparently not a major component of the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease (6). Early onset Parkinson's disease may be caused by a duplication or triplication of one of the alpha synuclein genes (7, 8). Alpha-synuclein is also found in the Lewy bodies of patients with diffuse Lewy body disease and inclusions in glial cells in the brains of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Alpha-synuclein is heavily expressed in brain and appears to be localized primarily to presynaptic regions, though not with a typical synaptic vesicle distribution pattern. The synuclein proteins appear to have little 3D structure in solution, and probably belong to the family of "intrinsically unstructured proteins" which only adopt a well-defined conformation when bound to other proteins or membrane lipids (9). An excellent recent review of the role of alpha-synuclein in health and disease was recently published by Mark Cookson (10).
- Product Reviews
- Product Publications
If you've used this product in a publication, let us know. Email email@example.com, with the publication details and you could be eligible for an Amazon gift card.
- Related Products
Name Catalog # Size BACE1 RA21010 50 ug GABA A receptor alpha 4 GT41008 100 ug GABA A Receptor beta 3 GT41011 100 ug GABA A receptor, pi subunit RA30047 50 ug GABA Receptor Associated Protein RA19014 100 ug GluR2/AMPA2 RA30012 50 ug GluR4/AMPA4 GT41012 100 ug Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 GT41009 100 ug NMDA NR1 Pan MO25041 15 ug NMDA Receptor 1, N1 RA25036 25 ug NMDA Receptor 2A RA25037 100 ul NMDA Receptor 2B RA25063 10 ug P2X1 RA10107 150 ul P2X1 RA10107 50 ul P2X2 GP14106 150 ul P2X2 GP14106 50 ul P2X2 RA10108 150 ul P2X2 RA10108 50 ul P2X3 GP10108 100 ul P2X3 RA10109 150 ul P2X3 RA10109 50 ul P2X3-Pure RA14139 100 ul p504s/AMACR (α-Methylacyl Coenzyme A Racemase) MO47014 100 ul phospho-NMDA Receptor 1 (Ser890) RA18011 100 ul Phospho-NMDA Receptor 1 (Ser896) RA18012 100 ul PSAP (Prostatic Specific Acid Phosphatase)/PAP MO47053 100 ul S-100 MO47059 100 ul