Human VCAM-1 (CD106, INCAM-110) is a cell adhesion molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Alternatively spliced forms are known to occur, but the most common form is a type I transmembrane protein with a 674 amino acid extracellular segment that includes seven C2-type immunoglobulin domains. VCAM-1 is expressed by activated endothelial cells and certain other cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, neurons, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and oocytes. VCAM-1 binds to leukocyte integrins alpha 4 beta 1 (VLA-4) and alpha 4 beta 7. During the inflammatory adhesion mechanism, activated integrins halt rolling leukocytes and attach them firmly to the vascular endothelium.
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