B7-1/CD80 and B7-2/CD86, together with their receptors CD28 and CTLA-4, constitute one of the dominant co-stimulatory pathways that regulate T- and B-cell responses. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with a 20-100 fold higher affinity than CD28 and is involved in the down-regulation of the immune response.
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