GM‑CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte‑macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM‑CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM‑CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils. GM‑CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity. It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy‑induced neutropenia, and GM‑CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines.
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