Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), also known as type II or immune interferon, exerts a wide range of immunoregulatory activities and is considered to be the prototype proinflammatory cytokine. IFN-gamma is produced by a variety of immune cells under inflammatory conditions, notably by T cells and NK cells. It plays a key role in host defense by promoting the development and activation of Th1 cells, chemoattraction and activation of monocytes and macrophages, up‑regulation of antigen presentation molecules, and immunoglobulin class switching in B cells. It also exhibits antiviral, antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects. In addition, IFN-gamma functions as an anti-inflammatory mediator by promoting the development of regulatory T cells and inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation.
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