The Interleukin‑17 (IL‑17) family of proteins are immunoregulatory cytokines that share a conserved cysteine‑rich region. IL‑17E, which is also known as IL‑25, promotes Th2‑biased immune responses. This is in contrast to other IL‑17 family members which promote Th1- and Th17‑biased inflammation. IL‑25 is an important mediator of allergic reactions and protection against intestinal parasites. IL‑25 acts on a variety of cell types which respond with increased production of Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL‑4, IL‑5, IL‑13) and reduced production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. IL‑25 also promotes vascular endothelial cell proliferation and assembly into tubular structures. It supports the integrity of the blood‑brain barrier and limits CD4+ T cell infiltration into the brain.
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