SMAD2 is part of the SMAD family of proteins that mediate signal transduction by the TGF-beta/activin/BMP-2/4 cytokine superfamily from receptor Ser/Thr protein kinases at the cell surface to the nucleus. Phosphorylated SMAD2 is then able to form a complex with SMAD4 or SARA. These complexes accumulate in the cell nucleus, where they are directly participating in the regulation of gene expression.
SMAD2 mediates the signal of the TGF-beta, and therefore regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. SMAD2 is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. TGF-beta 1 acts on adjacent stromal cells to turn on SMAD2 signalling that could lead to stromal decidualization. SMAD2 is the downstream signal transducers of TGF-beta-1 in human dental pulp cells.
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