Glucose transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins involved in transporting glucose into most cells. There are seven types of glucose transport carrier proteins, designated as Glut 1 to 7. Molecular cloning of glucose transporters have identified a family of closely related genes that encodes at least 7 proteins exhibiting high degree of amino acid homology (45% to 65%), all in the molecular weight range of 40 to 60 kDa. Some transporters exhibit dynamic trafficking between intracellular storage sites and plasma membranes in response to various stimuli. In some tissues Glut proteins are asymmetrically distributed between apical and basolateral membranes, as in blood brain barrier and blood testis barriers. GLUT1 is a major glucose transporter in the mammalian blood brain barrier. It is ubiquitous, and is present at high levels in primate erythrocytes and brain endothelial cells.
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