Noggin was originally cloned based on its dorsalizing activity in Xenopus embryos and was subsequently found to be a BMP binding protein that antagonizes BMP bioactivities. Noggin is involved in numerous developmental processes, such as neural tube fusion and joint formation. The morphogenesis of organs is initiated by a down growth from a layer of epithelial stem cells.
Noggin mutations in unrelated families with proximal symphalangism (SYM1) and multiple synostoses syndrome (SYNS1) have been identified, which have multiple joint fusion as their principal defect. In the adult, Noggin is expressed in the central nervous system and in several adult peripheral tissues such as lung, skeletal muscle and skin.
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