Our SOX2 (Sex Determining Region Y-Box 2) Goat IgG Antibody (GT15098) was recently used in published research exploring the effects of nicotine exposure on young animals. Ultimately, they find that nicotine limits the supply of cells that produce growth hormone, demonstrating one of the adverse effects of smoking, especially in children.

Image: Double-immunostaining with SOX2 and PRRX1 in the rat pituitary gland immediately after persistent nicotine exposure. Three-week-old Wistar rats were exposed to nicotine or saline for 7 days, and the pituitary gland was removed on the following day (4W) after treatments. Immunohistochemistry was performed with specific antibodies, and SOX2 and PRRX1 were visualized with FITC (green) and Cy3 (red) in the coronal plane.

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Nicotine exposure in three-week old Wistar rats wasn't shown to change the level of Sox2 compared to the control group. However, Prxx1 and growth hormone levels decreased as a result of nicotine exposure. These results suggest the number of growth hormone producing progenitor cells were impacted by nicotine. 

Image: Triple-immunostaining with nAChR α7, SOX2 and acetylated α-Tubulin in the rat pituitary gland. Three-week-old male Wistar rat pituitary gland was removed. Immunohistochemistry was performed with specific primary and secondary antibodies against nAChR α7 (Cy3, red), SOX2 (Cy5, white) and acetylated α-Tubulin (FITC, green), and merged with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, blue). Image is of the anterior lobe.

Image/Publication Citation:
Ayaka Hibara, Takahiro Yamaguchi, Miki Kojima, Yoshiaki Yamano, and Masashi Higuchi. (2020). Nicotine Inhibits Expression of Prrx1 in Pituitary Stem/Progenitor Cells Through Epigenetic Regulation, Leading to a Delayed Supply of Growth-Hormone-Producing Cells.Growth Hormone & IGF Research. doi: 10.1016/j.ghir.2020.02.003