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Type: Mouse IgG
Applications: IF; WB
E=ELISA; FACS; FC=Flow Cytometry; FPLC=Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography; GF=Gravity Flow; HPLC=High Performance Liquid Chromatography; ICC=Immunocytochemistry; IF=Immunofluorescence; IHC=Immunohistochemistry; IP=Immunoprecipitation; NAC=Non-adherent Cell Assays; NB=Neutralization of Bioactivity; SE=Sandwich ELISA; TPE=Targeted Protein Expression; WB=Western blotting; ; AC=Adherent Cell Assays; FM=Fluorescent Micsroscopy; ; ; BSC-CM5= Biacore Sensor Chip CM5; BSM=Biosactive Small Molecule or Peptide; CDM=Cell Differentiation Media; ; ; ; ; ; Health and Fitness; ; ; DNA Extraction/Purification; ; In vivo Like Assays
Species Reactivity: H; M; R
B=Bovine; Ca=Cat; Ch=Chicken; D=Dog; EQ=Equine; GP=Guinea Pig; H=Human; M=Mouse; P=Porcine; Pr=Primate; R=Rat; Rb=Rabbit; Y=Yeast; Xe=Xenopus; Ze=Zebrafish; ; ; ; NA-Not Applicable; STP=Step-Tactin Proteins; All
Format: Ascites Fluid - liquid
Immunogen: Epitope for ?-Synuclein is in the region 61-95 which correspond to the "Non-Amyloid beta Component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid"

Alpha synuclein is a member of the synuclein family, the other two proteins being beta and gamma synuclein. Alpha synuclein was originally isolated as a major synaptic vesicle associated protein from the electric organ of the fish Torpedo (1). Direct homologues of alpha-synuclein are found in all vertebrates. Later work connected alpha-synuclein with human brain pathology, when a protein originally identified as a component of NAC, the "Non-Amyloid beta Component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid" proved to be a peptide derived from alpha-synuclein (2).

Image: Mixed neuron-glial cultures stained with alpha-synuclein  (red) and chicken polylclonal antibody to MAP2  (green). The alpha-synuclein antibody stains vesicular structures the perikarya and processes of the neurons in this  Note that some of the neuronal perikarya contain much more alpha-synuclein than others. The blue channel shows the localization of DNA.  Inset: Blots of antibody against  recombinant alpha-synuclein (left lane) and crude extract of mouse brain (right lane). Protocol on Data-sheet.

The alpha-synuclein protein is therefore sometimes known as NAC precursor or NACP. Further work showed that alpha-synuclein is a major component of the Lewy bodies of Parkinson's disease and point mutations of alpha-synuclein proved to be causative of some forms of familial Parkinson's disease (3, 4, 5). However, despite being discovered as as component of amyloid preparations, alpha-synuclein is apparently not a major component of the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease (6). Early onset Parkinson's disease may be caused by a duplication or triplication of one of the alpha synuclein genes (7, 8). Alpha-synuclein is also found in the Lewy bodies of patients with diffuse Lewy body disease and inclusions in glial cells in the brains of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Alpha-synuclein is heavily expressed in brain and appears to be localized primarily to presynaptic regions, though not with a typical synaptic vesicle distribution pattern. The synuclein proteins appear to have little 3D structure in solution, and probably belong to the family of "intrinsically unstructured proteins" which only adopt a well-defined conformation when bound to other proteins or membrane lipids (9). An excellent recent review of the role of alpha-synuclein in health and disease was recently published by Mark Cookson (10).