Osteostat is the cytokine that binds to TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR and is important for interactions between activated T-lymphocytes and endothelial cells and may modulate T-lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. Osteostat is expressed at high levels in the small intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and endothelial cells after stimulation by lipopolysaccharides. Osteostat protein is detectable in human microvascular EC and is highly up-regulated by IFN-alpha and IFN-beta. Osteostat inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts from monocytic precursor cells. Osteostat suppresses the early stage of osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of macrophage colony-stimulating factorinduced receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) expression in the osteoclast precursor cells. Osteostat does not inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced RANK expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, or activation-induced RANK expression in T cells. Osteostat is a novel regulator of osteoclast generation and substantiate the major role played by the endothelium in bone physiology.
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