CMV belongs to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily of Herpesviridae which includes herpes simplex virustypes 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barrvirus. The herpesviruses share a characteristic ability to remain latentover long periods. CMV is a double-stranded linear DNA virus with 162 hexagonal protein capsomeres surrounded by a lipid membrane. CMV has the largest genome of the herpes viruses, ranging from 230-240 kilobase pairs.
Human CMV is composed of unique and inverted repeats that include the existence of 4 genome isomers caused by inversion of L-S genome components (class E). Replication may be divided into immediate early, delayed early, and late gene expression based on time of synthesis after infection. The DNA is replicated by rolling circles. In vitro, CMV replicates in human fibroblasts.
The human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded pp28 is a myristylated phosphoprotein that is a constituent of the virion. The pp28 protein is positioned within the tegument of the virus particle, a protein structure that resides between the capsid and envelope. In the infected cell, pp28 is found in a cytoplasmic compartment derived from the Golgi apparatus, where the virus buds into vesicles to acquire its final membrane.
Specificity: Immunoreactive with sera of CMV-infected individuals.
Applications: CMV Pp28 antigen is suitable for ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of CMV with minimal specificity problems.
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