Orphanin FQ (nociceptin, OFQ), a heptadecapeptide peptide, has been designated as an endogenous ligand for the ORL1 receptor. The amino acid sequence of OFQ has homology with other opioid peptides, especially the prodynorphin fragment dynorphin A, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between the precursors. A diffuse distribution throughout the brain is seen with binding studies and in situ hybridization suggesting an extensive role for OFQ in a multitude of CNS functions. Immunocytochemical localizations in rat spinal cord have demonstrated OFQ abundance in superficial dorsal horn, lateral spinal nucleus and the region dorsal to the central canal. OFQ immunoreactivity was not affected by dorsal rhizotomy, indicating that in spinal cord the peptide is produced by central rather than primary afferent neurons. The localization is supported by its function in processing of nociceptive signals.
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- L. Zhang, F. Stüber, C. Lippuner, M. Schiff, U. M. Stamer. (2019). ERK and p38 contribute to the regulation of nociceptin and the nociceptin receptor in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Molecular Pain. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744806919828921
- Andrew C. Eschenroeder, Allison A. Vestal-Laborde, Emilse S. Sanchez, Susan E. Robinson, Carmen Sato-Bigbee. (2012). Oligodendrocyte responses to buprenorphine uncover novel and opposing roles of μ-opioid- and nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptors in cell development: Implications for drug addiction treatment during pregnancy. Glia, Volume 60, Issue 1, pages 125–136. doi: 10.1002/glia.21253
- Xinmin Xie, Jonathan P. Wisor, Junko Hara, Tara L. Crowder, Robin LeWinter, Taline V. Khroyan, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sabrina Diano, Tamas L. Horvath, Takeshi Sakurai, Lawrence Toll and Thomas S. Kilduff. (2008). Hypocretin/orexin and nociceptin/orphanin FQ coordinately regulate analgesia in a mouse model of stress-induced analgesia. J. Clin. Invest., 118(7): 2471-2481. doi: 10.1172/JCI35115
- Chad D. Foradori, Marcel Amstalden, Lique M. Coolen, Sushma R. Singh, Christine J. McManus, Robert J. Handa, Robert L. Goodman and Michael N. Lehman. (2007). Orphanin FQ: Evidence for a Role in the Control of the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System. Endocrinology, doi: 10.1210/en.2007-0011
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