Three types of opioid receptors have been cloned -- mu, delta, and kappa. Opioid receptors are seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors. They share a high degree of homology and are most divergent at the N- and C-termini. Activation of mu opioid receptors leads to a decrease in neuronal excitability. Several C-terminal splice variants have been identified for the Mu Opioid Receptor (MOR1) including MOR1C. These splice variants appear to differ in their pharmacological selectivity as well as their membrane trafficking.
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- Xian-Yu Liu, Zhong-Chun Liu, Yan-Gang Sun, Michael Ross1, Seungil Kim, Feng-Fang Tsai, Qi-Fang Li, Joseph Jeffry, Ji-Young Kim, Horace H. Loh, Zhou-Feng Chen. (2011). Unidirectional Cross-Activation of GRPR by MOR1D Uncouples Itch and Analgesia Induced by Opioids. Cell, Volume 147, Issue 2, Pages 261-262. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.043
- María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Esther Berrocoso and Javier Garzón. María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Esther Berrocoso and Javier Garzón. (2011). The Mu-Opioid Receptor and the NMDA Receptor Associate in PAG Neurons: Implications in Pain Control. Neuropsychopharmacology, doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.155
- C. E. Groer, K. Tidgewell, R. A. Moyer, W. W. Harding, R. B. Rothman, T. E. Prisinzano, and L. M. Bohn. (2006). An Opioid Agonist that Does Not Induce mu-Opioid Receptor---Arrestin Interactions or Receptor Internalization. 0026-895X/07/7102-549–557. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, doi: 10.1124/mol.106.028258
- D. Blivis, G. Z. Mentis, M. J. O'Donovan and A. Lev-Tov. (2007). Differential Effects of Opioids on Sacrocaudal Afferent Pathways and Central Pattern Generators in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord.J Neurophysiol 97: 2875-2886, 2007. Journal of Neurophysiology, doi: 10.1152/jn.01313.2006 0022-3077/07
- Eunhae Kim, Amy L. Clark , Alexi Kiss, Jason W. Hahn, Robin Wesselschmidt. (2006). MU AND KAPPA OPIOIDS INDUCE THE DIFFERENTIATION OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS TO NEURAL PROGENITORS. JBC Papers, doi: 10.1074/jbc.M603862200
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