Human Coronin 1A is a 51,026 dalton protein (461 amino acids) expressed intrcellularly in macrophages and other cell types of the immune system. In the CNS, coronin 1A is expressed exclusively by microglial cells. Although its function is not entirely clear, there are reasons to believe that coronin serves as a linkage protein between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, and perhaps the extracellular matrix.
The protein is found exclusively in hematopoetic lineage cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Coronin1a is therefore an excellent marker of cells of this lineage and can also be used to study the leading edges particularly of neutrophils. Since the only hematopoetic cells found within the central nervous system are microglia, this antibody is also an excellent marker of this important cell type*. Microglia are numerically fairly minor components of the nervous system, but microglial activation is seen in response to a wide variety of damage and disease states, including ALS, Alzheimer's disease and responses to brain tumors. Since coronin 1a is a constitutive component of microglia, the coronin 1a antibody can be used to study both quiescent and activated microglia.
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