Glutamine Synthetase, also called glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL), is expressed throughout the body and plays an important role in controlling body pH and in removing ammonia from the circulation. The enzyme clears L-glutamate, the major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, from neuronal synapses.
Its activity is decreased in the cerebral cortex of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease, particularly in the vicinity of senile plaques. It is also decreased under conditions of glucose deprivation. The level of expression of Glutamine Synthetase is increased during ischemia in vivo or hypoxia in culture.
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